Wednesday, July 16, 2003

Maple Lodge Farms' "Zabiha Halal" products hit stores with new look ~ eat-halal.com

Maple Lodge Farms' "Zabiha Halal" products hit stores with new look

Chickens still killed by machine; Imam refers to practice as "against Sunnah"


Sikander Hashmi, eat-halal.com


(July 16, 2003) It took over a year of research and careful planning, but the new revamped line of "Halal" products from Canada’s largest chicken producer has arrived on the market.

Norval, Ontario-based Maple Lodge Farms launched its new "Zabiha Halal" line of products on June 20. The line includes many products such as wieners, bologna, loaf, polish sausages, nuggets, strips, burgers, and a variety of different fresh chicken parts and Premium ground chicken. The products come in distinctive green packaging with "Zabiha Halal" inscribed on the front along with a Maple Lodge Farms logo. The products are currently available in Ontario, and should show up in the rest of the country soon. They are also being exported to countries such as the UAE, Singapore, and Malaysia. Maple Lodge Farms' products are also sold in over 30 other countries from Armenia to Uzbekistan.

Fred Marques, the marketing manager at Maple Lodge Farms, says the new line of products is the result of research within the Muslim community and current competition.

"Competition started to become strong, and we started to notice it. And once you start to notice the competition, it forces you to review, and that's all we did. As a marketing manager I reviewed sales, offerings, packaging and our approach." This review led the company to research the Halal market and find out what consumers really wanted.

"This is all because of research; consumers saying I want stuff that I would go to a restaurant and buy," said Mr. Marques. He says that the company started the research at the end of 2001, and when the results came in, it was evident that among other things, Muslim consumers wanted a wider range of products to choose from, that were easier to find.

Mr. Marques admitted that another factor in the review was the controversy surrounding Maple Lodge’s products.

"[There were] lots of rumours going out there that we had tape recordings, that we didn't use Muslims, that our process was wrong, [and that] it wasn't true. I heard everything under the sun."


Controversy brews over slaughter method


All chickens at Maple Lodge Farms are slaughtered by machine. According to Mr. Marques, two Muslims stand at each of the two production lines. One pronounces a blessing with the name of Allah (tasmiyah) during the slaughter process, while the other makes sure that the machine has missed no chickens. A fifth "spare" stands-by to cover breaks, lunches, and prayer. Muslims have total control of the line, and also recite the name of Allah at the start of the line every time. Each line slaughters 140 chickens per minute or 8400 chickens per hour, which according to Mr. Marques, is the industry average. At any given time, the "blessers" bless for 2 hours straight, although they may leave for prayer.

Machine-slaughter has become a contentious issue in some circles, as many Muslims don't consider machine-slaughter to be an acceptable method of slaughter, and instead demand that chickens be slaughtered by Muslims holding individual knives. This method is often referred to as "hand-slaughter".

ISNA Canada is the organization that certifies Maple Lodge’s "Zabiha Halal" products as Halal. In a statement posted on the organization’s web site, ISNA Canada’s Director General, Dr. Muhammad Ashraf, states that, "Islamically there is no difference between hand or machine slaughtered chicken." He also claims that, "there is an ignorance on the part of many Muslims and even some scholars (Ulema) that machine slaughtered poultry is not Halal."

Many Muslim religious scholars reject these types of claims, and insist that chickens must be hand-slaughtered.

Internationally renowned scholar, jurist, former member of the Shariah appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, and Deputy Chairman of the Islamic Fiqh Academy (OIC) Jeddah, Mufti Taqi Usmani, witnessed the slaughter at Maple Lodge Farms during his visit to Canada in 1994.

In his book Contemporary Fatawaa, Mufti Taqi Usmani mentions his visit to Maple Lodge Farms, and suggests that, "three Muslims be employed to cut the throats of the chickens manually." He goes on to say that, "this procedure has been practised in a number of countries where the objective of mass production was never harmed or adversely affected."

Many proponents of machine-slaughter argue that it is virtually impossible to hand-slaughter chickens in today’s high-speed processing plants. However, opponents say that this argument doesn't stand because there are processing plants in Canada that have adopted hand-slaughter as the method of choice for Halal production, and as noted by Mufti Taqi Usmani, the method is also practised at facilities in numerous countries.

Others say that regardless of whether machine-slaughter is allowed or not, hand-slaughter should be the method of choice because it is universally accepted by all Muslims, and as mentioned earlier, is already in practice at a number of plants in Canada and around the globe.


Attempted survey of Canadian Imams inconclusive


In an attempt to grasp the general feeling of Imams on the issue of machine-slaughter, eat-halal.com tried to contact the Imams of 23 randomly selected Mosques from Newfoundland and Labrador to British Columbia. Only 2 Imams were reached, while messages were left at 14 Mosques, but none of the calls were returned. The calls to the other Mosques were met with no pickup (3), full voice mailboxes (2), no option for leaving a message (1), and in one case, a wrong number. (Click here to see the list of Mosques contacted)

eat-halal.com also contacted the Islamic Council of Imams-Canada, but the Council declined to comment on the issue.


Imam refers to practice as "against Sunnah"


One of the Imams eat-halal.com was able to reach was Sheikh Syed Fida Bukhari. He’s a graduate of the Islamic University of Madinah in Saudi Arabia and is the Imam of the Islamic Centre of Quebec in Montreal, one of the oldest Mosques in North America. Sheikh Bukhari says that slaughtering by machine is just not enough to satisfy the demands of the Islamic method of slaughter.

"First of all, this method is against the Sunnah and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammad (Peace be Upon Him)," said Sheikh Bukhari from his office in Montreal. "This is against the Sunnah, so at the very least it is doubtful, and the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) has stopped us from eating [that which is] doubtful."

When told about the "blessers" blessing the chickens before they are slaughtered by machines, Sheikh Bukhari presented the following hypothetical scenario: Right before a chicken is slaughtered by a machine, a Muslim "blesser" pronounces the Islamic blessing (i.e. "In the Name of Allah, Allah is Great"). At the very same moment, another person near-by says a blessing for something other than Allah. Which blessing will be given preference?

Sheikh Bukhari says that there is no satisfactory answer for this scenario in the light of Islamic Law, simply because there was no human intent from either individual in the actual act of slaughter, which according to Sheikh Bukhari, is a prerequisite for rendering the meat of an animal Halal.

The only other Imam eat-halal.com was able to reach was Sheikh Younus Kathrada of Vancouver’s Dar Al-Madinah Islamic Society. He says that the method of slaughter at Maple Lodge Farms is something that needs to be witnessed, but from what he’s hearing, it doesn't sound to him "at all as though this is something which is acceptable."

"This sounds completely unreasonable and doesn’t appear to me that this is a possibility that each and every chicken...somebody has recited tasmiyah over it," said a sceptical Sheikh Kathrada, when told about the speed at which the chickens are blessed, and then subsequently slaughtered by machines. (Two "blessers" bless 140 chickens each, every minute, which amounts to one blessing every 0.43 seconds for each person). "Each and every chicken has to have the tasmiyah recited over it, and the slaughterer has to have control of that."


Company considered hand-slaughter


Maple Lodge Farms is aware of the fact that a segment of the Muslim population is not in favour of machine-slaughter. As such, the company doesn’t expect to target 100% of the market. According to the company’s research, 30% of Muslims are against machine-slaughter, but Mr. Marques admits that this number varies, depending on who you talk to.

He says that during the review process, he discussed the possibility of switching the plant to hand-slaughter with the CEO of the company. In the end though, it came down to cost and practicality.

"As far as l know, there is no company doing a 100% hand-slaughter of production due to the cost; another issue that arises is the percentage of birds that are decapitated during a hand-slaughter process. I personally have visited two hand-slaughter plants and have witnessed approximately 10-20% of the birds being decapitated and not removed from the line. That creates doubt in my mind about hand-slaughter, and it should also to the end consumer. In a machine-slaughter environment, we guarantee no decapitation and proper bleeding.

"We gave it a fair-shake, we looked at it, and we felt that the product would hit the retail shelves [at a price] too high due to the cost of production and that Muslims would not pay the price. We chose not to, but what we did do was, we insured that we did everything in our power to conform to the standards required by ISNA, and plus them. We’ve covered it over and above what we’re expected to do to ensure that our process is 100%."


Lobbying against products not a concern for Maple Lodge


Shortly after the launch of Maple Lodge’s "Zabiha Halal" product line, Toronto’s Maulana Asif Qasmi reportedly appeared on a community radio show and warned listeners against consuming Maple Lodge’s "Halal" products. Other Imams and scholars are also expected to bring the issue to the forefront.

Mr. Marques says this type of lobbying is not of concern to the company, and he’s confident that his company is doing the right thing.

"Nobody has convinced me that this so-called hand-slaughter is more proper than a machine-slaughter. As a company, obviously, we wouldn't be doing it if we thought that we were cheating the consumer."

Whether it’s a concern for Maple Lodge or not, there seems to be no end in sight for the machine-slaughter controversy, and neither side seems to be willing to call it quits just yet.

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At 8:02 PM, Anonymous HALAL CONSUMERS said...

The Canadian beef industry has been marred by RECENT EVENTS OF MADCOW DISEASE or BOVINE SPONGIOFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) crisis and the CLOSURE OF US and other world markets to Canadian beef. THUS, HALAL BEEF EXPORT MARKET could or is becoming be a PROFITABLE NICHE MARKET for this AILING INDUSTRY in the future. Therefore, we are assessing the Halal beef industry in Canada and examining export opportunities for Halal beef products.

***SO WAKE UP AND READ THE FOLLOWING AND ASK WHAT YOU WANT, RATHER THAN COMPROMISE AND ADOPT THE MACHINE SLAUGHTER PROCESSS.****

The main objective of this study is to capture a better understanding of the requirements requested by Canadian Halal certifying organizations and potential export markets and make these requirements visible in order to aid those in the beef industry who want to enter Halal export markets. Hopefully by identifying a common minimum set of requirements and making them visible and accessible to the Canadian beef industry, this study will serve as a solid starting point for Canadian companies wishing to enter various Halal export markets.

A second objective of this study is to bring the Canadian Beef Export Federation (CBEF), Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), Halal certifiers and industry together to discuss the results of the study and hopefully pave the way for eventual collaboration between these groups. This collaboration will benefit not only the Canadian beef industry, but also the world's Halal food consumers.
---------------------------------
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http://ats.agr.ca/sahara/4078_e.htm
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Market Information
Sub-Saharan Africa

Halal Beef Study
Report on Findings
August 2005

Greg Folinazzo & Melissa Furkalo
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
174 Stone Road West
Guelph, Ontario
N1G 4S9

Introduction to the Study – Objectives
The Canadian beef industry has been marred by recent events such as the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis and the closures of the U.S. border and other world markets to Canadian beef. The Halal beef export market could be a profitable niche market for this ailing industry in the future. Therefore, we are assessing the Halal beef industry in Canada and examining export opportunities for Halal beef products.

The main objective of this study is to capture a better understanding of the requirements requested by Canadian Halal certifying organizations and potential export markets and make these requirements visible in order to aid those in the beef industry who want to enter Halal export markets. Hopefully by identifying a common minimum set of requirements and making them visible and accessible to the Canadian beef industry, this study will serve as a solid starting point for Canadian companies wishing to enter various Halal export markets.

A second objective of this study is to bring the Canadian Beef Export Federation (CBEF), Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), Halal certifiers and industry together to discuss the results of the study and hopefully pave the way for eventual collaboration between these groups. This collaboration will benefit not only the Canadian beef industry, but also the world's Halal food consumers.

Overview of Halal Consumer Markets & the Halal Meat Industry
Halal is the Arabic term meaning ‘lawful' or ‘permitted.' The opposite of Halal is Haram, which means ‘forbidden' or ‘prohibited.' Haram products include pork and pork by-products, alcohol and other intoxicants, animals not slaughtered according Islamic Law, blood and blood by-products, carnivorous animals, birds of prey, land animals without external ears and otherwise Halal products which have been contaminated by Haram ingredients (www.IFANCA.com).

It is important to note that Halal is a broad term that can be used in reference for everything from money to marriage to food. For the purposes of this study our concentration will be on Halal beef and the respective Islamic slaughtering rite. Muslims must make every effort to ensure the meat they consume is Halal, meaning the animal was slaughtered according to the Islamic ritual of Zabiha, whereby the animal is slaughtered by a Muslim who blesses the animal as he uses a sharp knife to make a single cut across the neck.

The following is an overview of major world Halal consumer markets and the Canadian Halal meat industry. As of 2003, there were approximately 1.4 billion Muslims in the world. At that time Europe was home to 20 million Muslims, Africa had a population of 300 million Muslims, the Middle East had 200 million Muslims and Asia was home to 800 million Muslims. North America has a population of approximately 9 million Muslims, with just under a million residing in Canada.

Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity and is also the fastest growing. The world Halal food trade is estimated to be approximately $150 billion dollars annually. The buying power of the US Muslim population is estimated to be over $12 billion per year with a population of approximately 8 million Muslims.
(www.eat-halal.com/certifiction.shtml)

Previously, Muslim countries have produced the majority of their meat domestically, but with the rapid growth of both the countries populations and the Islamic religion, they can no longer keep up with the growing demand for Halal meat products. This means there are more domestic as well as international consumers looking for and demanding valid Halal food products. This market is growing at a rapid pace and is becoming an opportunity niche market. As of 2000, 19% of the world's population were Muslims. That number is expected to climb to 30% in 2025. The average growth of the Muslim population is expected to be approximately 2.9% annually. (www.muslim-canada.org)

One point that should be of interest to producers is that it is not only Muslims who consume Halal meat products. There are many non-Muslim consumers of Halal meat who regard the product as being cleaner and less at risk for certain diseases because of the slaughtering method used. Through their experience and customer feedback, IFANCA has also found that many non-Muslim Halal consumers, such as animal rights activists, prefer Halal meat products because they believe the animals were treated very humanely and every effort was made to ensure minimum suffering during slaughtering.

World Halal Market Opportunities
The following paragraphs give brief overviews of a sample of the countries that are possible export markets for Halal beef. Due to various reasons, Canada is currently not exporting to these countries but hope to in the future.

The Republic of Indonesia
The Republic of Indonesia is the third most populous country in the world, and also has the world's largest Muslim population. 88% of the total population of 210 million people belong to the Islamic faith. The urban population is expanding and incomes are increasing. As of 2004, Indonesia's GDP per capita was $1,019 CAD. In 2003, the average household consumption rate grew 6%. (Country Commercial Report, U.S. 2003) All beef and poultry entering into the country must be Halal certified. The Canadian slaughterhouses must be approved by Indonesian veterinary and religious authorities. In 2002, before the BSE crisis, Canadian beef exports to Indonesia were $669,551 or 604,008kg.

The Arab Republic of Egypt
Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world with a population of 77 million people. (CIA World Factbook, 2005) Muslims make up 94% of the total population. The GDP per capita in the country is $4,561 CAD. Egypt is not self-sustaining in terms of food production therefore there is a great opportunity for export into Egypt. Egypt requires all meat (beef and poultry) entering the country to be Halal certified. Consumers tend to buy local fresh beef when they can and frozen imported beef. Demand for organ meat especially liver is strong due to reasonable prices compared to other cuts of beef. Fresh and frozen beef are allowed to be imported into the country as long the products are Halal certified. Canadian exports to Egypt in 2002, before the BSE crisis equalled $64,012 CAN or 72,422kg.

The Federation of Malaysia
Malaysia is one the fastest growing economies in the world and is among the wealthiest and most developed countries in Southeast Asia. The country has a population of 24 million people (2005). Over half of the population is Muslim. The GDP per capita in 2004 was $4,556 CAD. All beef and poultry imported into the country must be Halal certified, as well as approved by Malaysian authorities. Halal certification organizations as well as slaughterhouses must be approved by the relevant government agencies; namely, the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) and the Department of Veterinary Services (DVS). There is a large demand for nutritious, high quality foods at affordable prices. There is also a large export market in Malaysia for guts, bladders and stomachs of cattle.

United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates contains 10% of the world proven oil reserves (IT CAN). It has a population of 4 million people. 96% of the total population is Muslim making Islam the official religion of the UAE (2003). The UAE has a high GDP per capita of $27,096 CAD. All foreign Halal certifying bodies must be approved by the General Secretariat of Municipalities of the UAE. All beef and poultry entering into the country must be Halal certified. A UAE commission recently visited Canada and met with various slaughterhouses and Halal certifiers. We are currently awaiting their report on their findings. Before the BSE crisis, 2002 Canadian Halal beef exports to the UAE totalled $622,424 CAN or 41,001kg.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the world's leading oil producer and exporter. It has a population of 26 million with one hundred percent of the population being Muslim (2005). The GDP per capita is $13,384 CAD (2002). Saudi Arabia is known as the birthplace of Islam. Boneless fresh beef was Canada's third largest export to Saudi Arabia in 2003 (AAFC Trade Information). Halal certification is required on beef imported into Saudi Arabia. The slaughterhouses must be approved by a Saudi Arabian Islamic organization. Canadian Halal beef exports to Saudi Arabia totalled $5,857,134 CAN or 443,529 kg in 2002, before the BSE bans were implemented against Canadian beef.

Singapore
Singapore is the third largest country in Southeast Asia and its consumers are among one of the wealthiest in the world. This city state has a population of 4.4 million people. Singapore's GDP per capita is $25,000 CAD and is the highest in Southeast Asia and is comparable to Canada. (DFAIT, 2004) There is a mix of religions in the country; however Muslims make up about 17% of the population. Red meats are projected to do well. There are opportunities for fresh, frozen, and beef –based processed meats. All imported beef is not required to be Halal certified. If the product is meant for the large fast food sector and Muslim community, then Halal certification required by the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS). All exporters need a license for meat entering Singapore. Total Canadian beef exports to Singapore in 2002, before the BSE crisis, were $69,698 CAN or 14,738 kg.

The State of Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is an oil producing country with a population of 2.3 million people (2005). 85% of the country's total population is Muslim. The country has a GDP per capita of $20,705 CAD which suggests high purchasing power among Kuwaiti consumers. There is currently demand for high value food products with the prediction of a strong market potential for frozen beef (2004 U.S. Commercial Service). All meat and poultry entering Kuwait must be Halal certified by an approved Islamic certifier in the country of origin (USDA Attaché Report, 2004).

Islamic Republic of Iran
The Islamic Republic of Iran has a population of 69 million people (2004). 89% of the total population is Muslim, which makes Islam the official religion of Iran. The country is largely urbanized with 65% of its population living in cities. The GDP per capita is $1,640 CAD (2003). The country is currently not self-sufficient in food and is one of the world's largest net importers of agricultural products. This suggests an opportunity for Canadian beef exporters.

Turkey
Turkey is located in Southwestern Europe. The country has a population of 69.7 million people (2005). Muslims make up 99.8% of the population. GDP per capita in Turkey is $7,400 as of 2004. Turkey signed a customs union with the European Union (EU) in 1997, thus abolishing duties and tariffs for EU member countries. Turkish consumers are known to spend approximately 50% of their income on food.



The Canadian Halal Industry
The Canadian beef industry is in need of diversifying their export markets for beef. In 2002, farm cash receipts from cattle production totalled $7.57 billion dollars. In 2003, that number dropped to $5.19 billion, a loss of 30%. (www.cbef.com/Ind_intro.htm) According to the Ontario Cattleman's Association, Ontario cattle farmers alone have lost over $500 million dollars since May, 2003. (Standard-Freeholder, June 7, 2005) While the industry did make up some ground in 2004, setbacks such as the U.S. border remaining closed have slowed the industry's recovery significantly. Exporting to Halal beef markets could be a significant opportunity for those who choose to participate and make the investment.

Some Canadian companies such as Better Beef, St. Helen's Meat Packers, Ecolait Ltee, and Maple Leaf Foods Inc. have already received Halal Certification and have begun to take advantage of these markets. It should be noted there is currently no overseeing body who decides which organizations can and cannot issue Halal certificates.

The Codex Alimentarius was established by the World Health Organization and the Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and gives general guidelines for the use of the term Halal and claims of products. The Codex Alimentarius Commission that developed this international set of food standards has 170 members, including Canada. Canada uses Codex as an International reference on guidelines and standards like food labelling and the use of the term ‘Halal.'

The vast majority of federally inspected Halal certified slaughterhouses are situated in Ontario and Quebec. As of August 9, 2005 CFIA listed four slaughterhouses in Ontario and eight slaughterhouses in Quebec that perform Halal slaughter for beef. Approximately 15% of Canada's federally inspected cattle slaughter and 35% of calf slaughter is processed in Halal certified establishments. In 2003, before the BSE crisis, approximately 20% of Canadian beef exported to other countries was Halal.

Identified Minimum Halal Slaughtering Requirements
The following paragraphs summarize some of the similar minimum requirements this study identified through research and information gathering meetings. Each paragraph identifies an important step or element in the ritual Halal slaughter of cattle.

In order to be considered Halal, the animal must be of a Halal species. This means that the animal is not pig or swine, a carnivorous animal, a bird of prey, or land animal without external ears; such as lizards, which are considered Haram. The animal must also be healthy, nourished and lucid. This means that the animal does not have any diseases; it must be well fed, treated humanely and self-ambulatory. The four parties contacted, the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), the Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA), Misom Halal Foods & Canadian Islamic Food Services Committee (CIFSC), and Madina Fine Foods and the Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians (CCMT), are all in agreement with this requirement.

Stunning is a large issue of debate in regards to the validity of the animal being considered Halal. While two certifying organizations agree and accept stunning the cattle before slaughter for meat to be Halal, the other two parties claim that they do not accept it. The Islamic Food & Nutrition Council of America and the Islamic Society of North America's position on this issue is that stunning is permitted according to the Qur'an as long as the animal is not killed by the stunning.

Some organizations argue that stunning is prohibited, and that refraining from stunning the animal ensures a better drainage of the blood because the animal is moving and the blood is flowing faster than if it were stunned. They also state that stunning actually causes unnecessary suffering for the animal. Some organizations, especially industry organizations see stunning as a safety measure that protects their workers from being harmed by a flailing animal, as well as assuring compliance with the humane slaughter requirements.

The animal must be slaughtered by a practicing Muslim of proper age and good standing in the community. IFANCA guarantees this by having all slaughter-men fill out an application and then verifies their standing within the Muslim community to ensure that they meet the requirements of Islamic Law. They have also instituted a training program for the slaughtermen to meet industry requirements. ISNA allows only slaughtermen that have been selected or recommended by themselves and requires an oath to be taken by each slaughterman. Certifiers such as Misom Halal Food Products Co. and Madina Fine Foods hire their own slaughtermen to ensure their meat is Halal.

A slaughterman must sever at the very least the two jugular veins and the trachea in the neck by hand using a very sharp knife. The slaughterman must bless the animal in the name of ‘Allah' as he severs the vessels in one swift motion. The knife must not sever the head completely from the body and cannot harm the nervous system.

There are differences of opinion as to whether the oesophagus, the fourth major vessel in the throat, must be cut or if just the three vessels mentioned previously are acceptable. The point was made by the Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians (CCMT) that by severing all four veins, the animal would be acceptable to every Muslim and there would not be any conflict as to whether the meat should be considered Halal or not. IFANCA is of the opinion that non-stunned cattle should be slaughtered by severing all passages in the front of the neck, while cutting the oesophagus should be avoided for stunned animals in order to prevent contamination of meat with the back flow from the stomach.

Some industry producers and especially the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) have serious concerns regarding the oesophagus being cut because of the possibility of the contents in the stomach contaminating the meat. This is a major issue if the animal is hung during slaughtering. Madina Fine Foods and the Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians maintain their position that they have never encountered this to be a problem in their research.

There is consensus between all contacted organizations on the requirement that the throat vessels must be severed in one horizontal cut. However, some industry producers make a vertical cut first in order to fully expose the necessary vessels and then make a single horizontal cut to sever them. By doing the first vertical cut, they ensure that they do not sever the oesophagus. Some certifiers believe that there should only be one horizontal cut. IFANCA holds the position that the Qur'an does not state that by making the vertical cut first, it affects whether the meat is considered Halal or not, as long as the veins are all severed in a single cut. ISNA holds the same position on the issue of the first vertical cut.

The next step is the drainage of blood from the carcass. This step ensures that there is no blood left in the carcass, as it is Haram for Muslims to consume blood. All certifying bodies agree that the blood must be fully drained and the animal deceased before parts are cut off or skinning can take place. There is only a slight difference of position between the contacted parties as to the period of time that the animal must bleed for. Some parties have specified periods of time while others just state that when the bleeding stops it is alright to commence skinning provided the animal is deceased.

All certifying bodies agreed that the storage, packing and shipping of Halal products should be separate from non-Halal products. However, it should be noted that the packaging must be Halal as well, meaning that the ingredients in the plastics and any ingredients used to make the packaging has come from a Halal slaughtered animal if they are of animal origin.


Summary of Certifier Meetings

Preliminary research revealed that there are two different approaches to Halal certification in Ontario. By contacting federally inspected slaughterhouses in Canada we identified two main certifiers, the Islamic Food & Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA) and the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA). Both organizations are mainly focused on the Halal certification and promotion of Halal products.

The second identified approach to Halal certification is self-certification by Halal product distributors. Misom Halal Food Products Co. and Madina Fine Foods are two examples of this approach that we identified. Both companies produce and distribute Halal products and do their own Halal slaughtering for their own respective labels.

The director of Misom Halal Food Products Co. is also a director for the Canadian Islamic Food Services Committee (CIFSC). He is authorized to issue CIFSC Halal certificates for food products meant for distribution by Misom. He does not certify other slaughterhouses like IFANCA and ISNA, only raw material for his own company's use. His position reflects CIFSC, which does certify other Halal food product producers.

Madina Fine Foods also does their own slaughtering for their own label under the guidance of the Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians (CCMT). They go into the slaughterhouse and perform the Halal slaughter for the amount of meat that they need to fill their own orders. The following paragraphs are summaries of the research meetings that were held with the organizations identified above.

Islamic Food & Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA)
IFANCA has been very helpful in giving insight into the Canadian Halal meat industry and into the meaning of Halal itself. They share in Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada's view of increasing the strength of Canada's Halal beef exports and in opening up new markets to the industry. IFANCA would like to see more Halal products in main stream supermarkets where consumers can conveniently access them with the confidence that the products are truly Halal.

IFANCA's major concerns about the Halal meat industry in Canada were mimicked repeatedly by all of the contacted parties we interviewed. They are very concerned about companies who are misleading the Muslim consumers through deceptive labelling of non Halal products as Halal and relaxed standards of other certifiers.

IFANCA works closely with the industry to ensure that all procedures follow Islamic Law. They are willing to work with the industry in order to make the process as practical and straightforward as possible. They choose to only work with federally certified and inspected plants thus ensuring that the products produced meet halal import standards of countries. They have close relationships with many countries and are recognized by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Safety Inspection Service, World Muslim League, Saudi Arabia, Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS), Islamic Affairs Division, Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), and Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI).

Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)
The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) is the one of the larger organizations that we spoke with during this study. We found that IFANCA and ISNA hold similar positions on issues such as stunning and the number of vessels to be cut.

ISNA stated that one of the main concerns they have with the Canadian Halal industry is that there is no overseeing body to regulate Halal certification in Canada. They would like to see the government take more of a presence in the industry. ISNA feels that having the government involved would give more credibility to Canadian Halal certifiers in export markets.

ISNA suggested that organizing a type of conference/ workshop in conjunction with the federal and provincial governments for the benefit of Canadian food manufacturers and slaughterhouses so that they are aware of the basics of Halal food. They also suggested that the basic requirements of Halal food production be governed by federal government regulations and that there be penalties for violating these regulations. ISNA mentioned that subsidiaries should be given to companies exporting Halal foods so that they will be able to compete with Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America.

They would like the Canadian government to look at what the Australian and New Zealand governments have done in regards to Halal certification by making it part of a government initiative on the expansion of the country's food industry. These governments have special legislation for ensuring that Halal food requirements are enforced.

The Malaysian Islamic Development Department (JAKIM), which is part of the Malaysian government, has recognized ISNA and their Halal certification process since 1988. ISNA is no longer willing to work to sit down and meet with other certifiers, industry groups, producers and government for the benefit of Halal consumers and Canadian Halal beef producers.

Misom Halal Food Products Co.
The director of Misom Halal Food Products Co. is also a director for a non profit organization called The Canadian Islamic Halal Food Services Committee (CIHFSC) and is authorized by them to certify his own products as Halal. He does not certify multiple slaughterhouses, only batches of products meant for Misom products. They tend to adhere to the strictest of Islamic Law. They voiced the same concerns as IFANCA did about the Canadian Halal meat industry. They state that there is an abuse of the Halal label and that certain certifiers and producers are misleading Muslim consumers.

Misom stated that they would like to see producers have an understanding of what Halal is rather than just using it to contribute to their bottom line. They feel that the Islamic religion should take a bigger part in whether companies choose to perform Halal slaughtering. They suggested that slaughterhouses and industry producers need more support and guidance from the Canadian government and/or an overseeing body to tell them when they are not complying with Islamic law.

Madina Fine Foods & The Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians
Madina Fine Foods is not a Halal certifier, they are a producer and distributor of Halal food products. They are currently working with and receiving guidance from a non-profit group named the Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians (CCMT). This group is working towards becoming a Halal certifier. Currently they feel that they are not ready to start issuing certificates yet.

Madina Fine Foods goes into various slaughterhouses and performs the rite for the meat they need in order to fulfill their orders. It should be noted that Madina Fine Foods only processes chicken for their label. Madina Fine Foods and CCMT's philosophy is that they want to ensure that their products appeal to the widest population of Muslims and this means adhering to the strictest of Islamic Law to appease the entire Muslim population.

Madina Fine Foods and CCMT do not support stunning and believe that there are alternatives to the practice. They would like to see certifying bodies maintain constant inspections of Halal slaughtering facilities to ensure that every animal is Halal. They hope to follow the structure of a certifying body that they have been in contact with in England, who has managed to do this. By keeping constant watch over slaughterhouses, Madina believes that only then can the abuse of Halal certification be completely eliminated.

Madina believes that the reputation of the certifier has a lot to do with how the product will be received by the consumer. They stated that if or when Canada becomes a substantial exporter of Halal meat products, it is very important to make sure that our reputation remains excellent because trust is very important within the Islamic faith. And once that trust is broken, it is very difficult to regain it.

Other Stakeholders Involved

Canadian Beef Export Federation (CBEF)
The Canadian Beef Export Federation (CBEF) was established in 1989 as an independent non profit organization and is committed to improving export opportunities for the Canadian cattle and beef industry. Their mission is to ‘expand and diversify export sales and market share of Canadian beef and beef products with sustained profit based on brand value and unique Canadian advantages.' (CBEF)

CBEF's activities include helping its exporting member to enter and expand their share of foreign markets with services like trade facilitation, detailed market intelligence, comprehensive market research studies and product inquiry information obtained from foreign buyers.

CBEF has expressed interest in this study. The finding of this study will hopefully benefit them by identifying niche markets and the minimum requirements needed for entering possible export markets, which will in turn benefit CBEF's members in the future.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is responsible for the delivery of all federal food, animal and plant health inspection programs. They are responsible for the regulation of policies and standards for the safety and nutritional quality of food sold in Canada, and the administration of those provisions under the Food and Drugs Act.

The CFIA's activities include all activities from inspection of federally registered meat processing facilities to performing border inspections for foreign pests and diseases, enforcement of practices related to fraudulent labelling and ensuring the humane transportation of animals.

Since our main focus is the exporting of Halal beef, CFIA has to be involved in order to ensure that all Halal beef still meets Canadian export standards from a food safety perspective. CFIA is not involved in Halal certification of beef.

Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada provides information, research and technology, and policies and programs to achieve security of the food system, health of the environment and innovation for growth. They ensure that Canadian agricultural products are among the highest quality and safest in the world and are continuously promoting Canadian agricultural products in foreign markets.

AAFC is also interested in this study from a market development perspective as this report identifies potential export markets for Canadian beef

AAFC's main position is to execute this study, publish the findings and to act as a facilitator for the involved stakeholders to meet and discuss the results of the study.

Standards Council of Canada (SCC)
The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) is a federal crown corporation who promotes efficient and efficient standardization and also represents Canada's interests in standards-related matters in international forums. The SCC prepares publications that establish accepted practices, technical requirements and terminologies for products, services and systems.

We would like the SCC to be involved because of the possibility of developing a set of minimum standards for Halal beef slaughter in Canada.

Recommendations & Next Steps

Recommendations
In conclusion, this study shows that there is an opportunity for diversification of the markets for Canadian beef. Canadian beef producers should seriously look at expanding in this growing niche market. We do offer some recommendations for companies that are considering this opportunity.

Companies should always check the importing country's regulations with respect to beef. Some countries state that the exporter must receive certification from one of their Halal certification agencies, while others accept Canadian Halal certificates from Canadian Islamic societies. As well, import regulations are subject to change so it is recommended that exporters check with the government in the country of destination.

Next Steps
We would like to hold a meeting in September 2005 to bring together Halal certifiers, industry, and government to discuss how to enhance and expand the Canadian Halal beef market. If this is successful, we would like to expand this report to include other provinces in Canada.

Bibliography
Canadian Beef Exporters Federation (2005).
www.cbef.com/Ind_intro.htm

Canadian Council of Muslim Theologians, "Halal Guidelines."
www.jucanada.org/halalfoods.htm

DFAIT (2005). Opening Doors to the World: Canada's International Market Access Priorities.
www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/2005/pdf/cimap-en.pdf

eat-halal.com Canada (2004).
www.eat-halal.com

Government of Alberta, Department of Agriculture, Food & Rural Development (2005). Canadian Halal Meat Market Study.
www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/afu9886/
$FILE/canadian_halal_meat_market_study.pdf

Halal Monitoring Committee (2005). "Islam & Muslims Oppose Stunning."
www.halalmc.co.uk/

Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (2005).
www.ifanca.org

Islamic Society of North American (2005).
www.isnacanada.com

IT CAN (2005). Virtual Trade Commissioner Service.
www.infoexport.gc.ca/ie-en/MarketReportsAndServices.jsp

Labrecque, Rachele (June 7, 2005). Beef farmers expect long summer: Mostly because the trade border with the U.S. will likely stay closed, Standard-Freeholder.

Lian, Hah Foong. (May 4,2003). Canada hopes to feed demand for Halal food, The Star Online.
biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2003/5/4/
business/flhalal&sec=business

United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service, Attaché Reports. Kuwait Country Report 2004.
www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200408/146107284.pdf


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Date Modified: 2005-11-29 Important Notices

 
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For occasion, an $eighty therapeutic therapeutic massage could be attained by the consumer for $forty by way of Groupon, and then Groupon and the retailer would split up the $forty. That is, the retailer offers a therapeutic therapeutic massage valued at $eighty and gets around $20 from Groupon for it (under a fifty%/50% crack up). Or, if $240 actually really worth of home painting businesses is purchased by the client for $fifty through Groupon, then the organization will get $twenty five and Groupon retains $20 five. The shopper receives the therapeutic massage, or the property portray company, in these examples, from the retailer for which they initially compensated $forty (or $fifty) to Groupon. There are specified companies to which Groupon at first did not supply you its providers, including getting pictures ranges and strip clubs nevertheless, capturing ranges have been showcased on Groupon.

As opposed to classified advertising and marketing, the service provider does not spend any upfront price tag to just take component: Groupon collects private information from prepared consumers and then contacts only individuals purchasers, largely by every working day digital mail, who may possibly probably be fascinated in a particular items or supplier.

Groupon employs a massive quantity of copywriters who draft descriptions for the special discounts highlighted by e-mail and on the internet web site. Groupon's promotional textual articles for the 'deals' has been noticed as a contributing element to the recognition of the website, featuring a distinct mix of comprehensive truth-inspecting and witty humor.

Owing to Groupon's marketplace getting largely composed of female clients, the bargains are often concentrated on the overall overall health, overall health and health and fitness and attractiveness marketplaces.

There are potential troubles with the firm layout. For illustration, a effective deal could temporarily swamp a little company with also several consumers, jeopardizing a chance that shoppers will be dissatisfied, or that there won't be ample items to meet up with the need from buyers. Hole, a large clothing retailer, was able to deal with 445,000 low cost codes in a national supply (even even though it experienced server problems at one particular level), but a scaled-down company could change into abruptly flooded with buyers. A one espresso store in Portland, Oregon struggled with an increase in shoppers for a handful of months, when it bought around to 1,000 Groupons on the 1 day it was presented, in accordance to 1 report. In response to equal troubles, Groupon officers problem that 'deal' subscriptions ought to be capped in progress to a reasonably priced number.

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